Sabtu, 02 Januari 2010

pestisida sintetis

Nama :Anwar Gozali
NIM : 0810442057
Kelas :D
Judul Asli : Effects Of Net Barrier and Synthetic Pesticides On Red Pumpkin Beetle and Yield of Cucumber
Judul Terjemah : Akibat Dari Halangan Jaring dan Pestisida Sintetik pada Kumbang Jipang Merah dan Hasil Investasi dari Ketimun
Dosen : dr. Ir. Anton Muhibbuddin


EFFECTS OF NET BARRIER AND SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES ON
RED PUMPKIN BEETLE AND YIELD OF CUCUMBER

M. A. RAHAMAN1), M. D. H. PRODHAN2)

1)Technical Officer (Agriculture), Partnership in Agricultural Research and Extension (PARE) Program, Mennonite Central Committee (MCC), Bangladesh, Jublee Bagan Lane, Sirajgonj - 6700, 2)Scientific Officer, Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh
Accepted for publication: 14July, 2007

ABSTRACT

Rahman, M.A. and Prodhan, M.D.H. 2007. Effects of Net Barrier and Synthetic Pesticides on Red Pumpkin Beetle and Yield of Cucumber. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 2(3): 30-34
The effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on red pumpkin beetle and on yield of cucumber was investigated using farmer’s field at one location, Madhupur, Tangail during the year 2005-2006. The treatments were control, mosquito net barrier, carbofuran (soil mixing pesticide) and foliar spraying of Diazinon-60EC. There were differences in case of overall performance of the treatments and in some cases it was more or less similar. However, in control there was a highest leaf and fruit infestation by the red pumpkin beetle but yield was very near to the highest yield performance because in net barrier plants were free from infestation but a month after removed of net barrier plants showed more susceptibility to the red pumpkin beetle and other insects also. The carbofuran performed well compared to other treatments.
Keywords: Synthetic pesticides, net barrier, yield

INTRODUCTION

Bangladesh is a vegetable deficit country. The vegetables are not produced evenly throughout the year in this country. Less than one-fourth of the vegetables are produced during the kharif season and more than threefourth are produced in the rabi season (Anonymous, 1993a).Thus, smaller quantities of vegetables are grown in the kharif (Summer & rainy months) season. The major vegetables grown in the summer are the cucurbits. Cucumber is a popular and extensively cultivated cucurbitaceous vegetable in Bangladesh. People like it cooked and raw. Most people like to have it as a salad. On the other hand a good economic profit may come through its cultivation. But its production is severely affected by a number of insect pests. Among these insect pests, the red pumpkin.
Beetle (RPB) and fruit flies are the most damaging and major pests (Alam, 1969; Butani and Jotwani, 1984). The RPB, Aulacophora foveicollis (Lucas), has been reported by Azim (1966) as the most destructive insect pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables, specially cucumber and melons, in Bangladesh. This insect pest is widely distributed all over the South-East Asia as well as the Mediterranean region towards the west and Australia in the east (Butani and Jotwani, 1984). The adult beetle is red, oblong and approximately 6-8 mm long and lays its eggs at the base of the cucumber stem. A single female can lay 150 to 300 eggs (Srivastava and Butani, 1998).
The adult beetles feed voraciously on the leaf lamina making irregular holes and also attack cotyledons and flowers (Butani and Jotwani, 1984). They eat seedlings, young and tender leaves and flowers. They normally occur in large numbers. The grubs are yello wish white and when in the soil cause injury to the roots (Maniruzzaman, 1981). Presently the farmers are totally depended on the use of insecticides to control this pest. Control of RPB by applying insecticides has been reported by several workers in home (Alam, 1969; Karim,1992 ; Anonymous, 1992, 1993b, 1994) and abroad (Pawlacos, 1945 ; Butani and Jotwani , 1984; Nair, 1986; Chattopadhyay, 1992 and Saha, 1992).But indiscriminate use of pesticides has not only complicated the management, but has also created several adverse effects such as pest resistance, outbreak of secondary pests (Hagen and Franz, 1973), health hazards (Bhaduri et al., 1989) and environmental pollution (Kavadia et al., 1984; Desmarchelier, 1985; Devi et al., 1986; Fishwick, 1988). So always we are looking alternative and environment- friendly methods of pest control. The use of net barrier was found to provide adequate protection from RPB attack. A physical barrier preventing the adults from feeding on the leaves and from reaching the stem to lay their eggs is a potential control method and since mosquito netting is widely available in Bangladesh, it could be easily procured by farmers for such purpose. It is better to follow the need based applications of pesticides at action threshold and economic threshold.
There are objectives behind this trial, which are as follows: To see the effectiveness of net barrier to control the red pumpkin beetles at its seedling stage and finally at the production stage; to find an environment-friendly technology which is less hazardous to the environment and friendly to the beneficial insects; and to see the effect of different synthetic pesticides on the yield of cucumber.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was conducted at farmer’s field of Jalchatra, Madhupur, Tangail under the jurisdiction of a partner organization, Jalchatra Mission from May to August, 2005. The treatments were laid out in RCB design with 5 replications. Treatments were as follows –
T1 = Control
T2 = Mosquito net barrier
T3 = Use of Carbofuran (soil mixing pesticide) and
T4 = Foliar spraying of Diazinon 60-EC.
Land was prepared by four ploughing and was leveled properly. Recommended doses of compost, 40kg/decimal and chemical fertilizers like urea: 460g, TSP: 460g and MP: 230g per decimal were mixed during final land preparation followed by MCC crop calendar (2003).The area of unit plot was 2mX 8m = 16m2, where the total land was 64m2 in size. The main plot was divided into 20 subplots. Three seeds were sown in each hill and hills were arranged in rows, where 1.5 m distance was kept between plant to plant and row to row. A drainage canal of 25cm between two rows was kept.
The mosquito net barrier was set just after seed sowing and it was funnel like to look at. At 30 days after sowing (DAS) the net barrier was removed. In each hill finally one plant was kept and uprooting the other two and at this time shoots and root length data were recorded. In the treatment Carbofuran (as a soil mixing chemical) – the pesticide was mixed with hill soil just before seed sowing. At 30 days, thinning of plants was done and keeping one per hill and at that time root and shoot length data were recorded. In the treatment using Diazinon 60EC as a folier spray, it was sprayed to the field and it was starting from the first week after emergence and it was continued once per week till harvest.
Necessary intercultural operations were done properly. Farmer was related with all kinds of trial activities. They were not so interested to do that and that is why our research assistant had to spend a lot time for this purpose. 50cm high bamboo sticks were posted around the hill and pesticides were sprayed to the field in every 8, 15 and 21 days.
Data was recorded at different stages during the cropping period. At each harvest, the number and weight of both infested and healthy fruits were recorded and the presence of fruit infestation was calculated. The cumulative plot yield of healthy and infested fruits was converted to yield per hectare. Fruit infestation was calculated using the following formula:
Number of infested fruits
Fruit infestation by number (%) = ------------------------------------------- X 100
Number of total fruits
All data were subjected to ANOVA and the treatment means were separated by applying SPSS (version 10.0).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effect of different treatments on leaves of cucumber
Numbers of leaves at 27 DAS in three treatments (T1, T2 and T4) were more or less same and statistically there were no significant differences among them. The highest number was 15.60 ± 10.06 in the T3 (Carbofuran). A significant difference was found at 5% level, when the Carbofuran was compared with other three treatments. At 37 DAS the highest number of leaves were being 23.00 ± 11.68 in the Carbofuran. Other three treatments showed approximately same results and there were no significant differences among the treatments (Table 1).

Effect of different treatments on plant height of cucumber
Highest plant height showed by the Carbofuran while net barrier performance was statistically same (Table1).A significant difference in the plant height of these treatments and the other treatment did exist. The lowest plant height was performed by the control and Diazinon and these two treatments showed no significant differences between them.

Effect of different treatments on root length of cucumber
Highest root length was performed by the Carbofuran than the net barrier and lowest performance by the control and Diazinon. Statistically there were no significant differences among them (Table 1).

Table 1: Effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on different agronomic characteristics of cucumber (plot wise data)








Treatments No. of leaves at 27 DAS/plot ± SD No. of leaves at 37DAS ± SD Plant height (cm) at 27 DAS ± SD Root length (cm) ± SD Total no. of harvested fruits ± SD
Control 6.00 ± 2.12 b 13.80 ± 5.89 7.00 ± 2.92 b 5.35 ± 1.58 7.20 ± 4.02
Net barrier 6.20 ± 3.35 b 12.20 ± 7.85 22.20 ± 20.73 ab 17.544± 16.66 4.20 ± 2.39
Carbofuran 15.60 ± 10.06 a 23.00 ± 11.68 38.60 ± 28.79 a 19.80 ± 11.52 9.60 ± 5.18
Diazinon 6.20 ± 0.84 b 13.40 ± 4.22 7.70 ± 1.72 b 6.50 ± 2.78 4.80 ± 2.05
F – value 3.71 2.82 3.62 2.51 2.67
P – value P< 0.05 NS P< 0.05 NS NS


Effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on cucumber pest status
Data was collected from beetle infested leaves at 27 and 37 DAS. Where, at 27 DAS the control showed a highest number of leaf infestation and zero infestation was observed in the net barrier. At 37 DAS, the control also showed the highest infestation and lowest by the Carbofuran and it was significant at 5% level (Table 2).
There were significant differences among the treatments incase of fruit infestation. The highest fruit infestation was occurred by the T1. Lowest infestation occurred by T2 while the Carbofuran and Diazinon treated plants gave statistically the same results. (Table 2).
Table 2: Effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on cucumber pest status


Treatments No. of beetle infested leaves at 27DAS ± SD No. of beetle infested leaves at 37DAS ± SD No. of infested fruits ± SD
Control 3.00 ± 1.22 a 3.80 ± 1.30 a 2.20 ± 1.30 a
Net barrier 0.00 ± 0.00 b 2.40 ± 1.34 ab 0.60 ± 0.89 b
Carbofuran 0.20 ± 0.45 b 0.80 ± 0.84 b 2.00 ± 0.71 ab
Diazinon 0.60 ± 0.89 b 1.40 ± 2.61 b 1.00 ± 1.41 ab
F – value 11.82 3.79 3.47
P – value P< 0.01 P< 0.05 P = 0.05

Yield records :
To observe the yield performance data were collected from both infested and non infested fruits. During the harvesting period all harvested fruits were marketable size. Data was collected plot wise (64m2) in kilogram and was converted to ton/hectare. The Carbofuran gave the highest yield (1.24 t/ha) and second highest was performed by the control (1.23 t/ha), where the Diazinon and net barrier yielded 0.55 t/ha and 0.41 t/ha, respectively (Fig.1).
Though there is a dramatic growth rate was occurred in the treatment net barrier but at the final stage yield was not at satisfactory level. Obviously it is true that plants remain free of infestation when it is in the net barrier, but a month after removed of net barrier, the plants showed more susceptibility to the red pumpkin beetle and other insects also. It may be that due to open condition plants of other treatments built a resistance against different natural threats and finally they gave an acceptable yield, but growth and yield was drastically reduced in the treatment net barrier. After removing the net barrier environment friendly materials like some botanicals had to be used to save the plants.

Yield records :
To observe the yield performance data were collected from both infested and non infested fruits. During the harvesting period all harvested fruits were marketable size. Data was collected plot wise (64m2) in kilogram and was converted to ton/hectare. The Carbofuran gave the highest yield (1.24 t/ha) and second highest was performed by the control (1.23 t/ha), where the Diazinon and net barrier yielded 0.55 t/ha and 0.41 t/ha, respectively (Fig.1).
Though there is a dramatic growth rate was occurred in the treatment net barrier but at the final stage yield was not at satisfactory level. Obviously it is true that plants remain free of infestation when it is in the net barrier, but a month after removed of net barrier, the plants showed more susceptibility to the red pumpkin beetle and other insects also. It may be that due to open condition plants of other treatments built a resistance against different natural threats and finally they gave an acceptable yield, but growth and yield was drastically reduced in the treatment net barrier. After removing the net barrier environment friendly materials like some botanicals had to be used to save the plants.
REFERENCES

Alam, M. Z. 1969. Pest of cucurbit vegetables. In: Insect-Pests of vegetables and Their Control in East Pakistan. Agricultural Information Service, Department of Agriculture, Dacca, pp. 89-110.

Anonymous. 1992. Annual Research Report (1991-92), Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur. 137p.

Anonymous. 1993a. Research and development of vegetable crops. Paper presented in the workshop on March 9-10, 1993 at IPSA, Gazipur. pp. 1-7.

Anonymous. 1993b. Annual Research Report (1992-93), Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur. 112p.

Anonymous. 1994. Annual Research Report (1993-94), Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur. 132p.

Azim, M. I. I. 1966. Studies on the biology of red pumpkin beetle, Aulacophora foveicollis (Lucas) (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) in East Pakistan. M. Sc. Thesis. Department of Entomology. Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. pp. 1-95.

Bhaduri, M., Gupta, D.P. and Ram, S. 1989. Effect of vegetable oils on the ovipositional behaviour of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). Proc. 2nd Intl. Symp. On Brouchids and Legumes (ISLB-2) held at Okyayamace (Japan), Sept. 6-9, 1989. pp. 81-84.

Butani, D. K. and M. G. Jotwani. 1984. Insects in vegetables. Periodical Expert Book Agency. Vivek-Vihar, Delhi (India). pp. 69-79.

Chattopadhyay, P. 1992. Keetatatta, keetadaman O Shasya Sanrakshan. West Bengal State Book Board, Arjo Mansion (9th floor), 6A, Raja Subodh Mollick Square, Calcutta-700013, India. 2nd Edition. 375p. (in Bangla).
Desmarchelier, Y.M. 1985. Bolivian of pesticide residues on stored grain, Aciar Prof. Series, Australian Centre Int. Agril. Res. 14: 19-29.

Devi, D.A., Mohandas, N. and Vistakshy, A. 1986. Residues of Fenthion, Quinphos and Malathion in paddy grains following surface treatment of gunny bags. Agril. Res. J.Kerala. 24(2): 222-224.

Fishwick, R.B. 1988. Pesticide residues in grain arising from post harvest treatments. Aspects Appl. Biol. 17(2): 37-46.

Hagen, K.S. and Franz, J.M. 1973. A history of biological control. pp. 433-467. In: Smith, R.F., Mittler, T.E. and Smith, C.N. (eds.). History of Entomology. Annual Rev. Inc., Palocetto, California. 872 p.

Karim, M. A. 1992. Insect pests of vegetable crops and their management. In: Vegetable production and Marketing. Lopez, K. and E. Libas (eds.). Proc. National Review and Workshop held at BARI, Gazipur, Bangladesh on January 26-29. 1992. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Shanhua, Tainan,
Taiwan. Publication No. 92-379. pp. 110-112.

Kavadia, V.S., Pareek, B.L. and Sharma, K.P. 1984. Residues of malathion and carbaryl in stored sorghum.
Bull. Grain Tech. 22(3): 247-250.

Maniruzzaman, F.M. 1981. Plant protection in Bangladesh, National book center: Bangladesh, Purana Paltan,
Dhaka: pp.249-251.

MCC Bangladesh Research Result, 2003. The effects of a net barrier and thiamethoxam seed treatment on cucumber growth in the first four weeks after emergence at Mannan Nagar, 29: 35-38.
Nair, M. R. G. K. 1986. Insects and Mites of Crops in India. Publication and Information Division, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. New Delhi. pp. 162-169.

Pawlacos, J. G. 1945. The biology and control of Aulacophora foveicollis (Lucas) in Greece. Rev. Appl. Ent. Ser. A. 33: 16-17.

Saha, L. R. 1992. Handbook of plant protection. Kalyani publishers, 1/1, Rajinder Nagar, Ludhiana-141008, India. First Edition, Reprinted. 928p.

Srivastava, K.P. and Butani, D.K. 1998. Pest Management in Vegetables Part –I, Research Periodicals and Book Publishing House Houston, Texas.
TERJEMAHAN

AKIBAT DARI HALANGAN JARING DAN PESTISIDA SINTETIK PADA KUMBANG JIPANG MERAH DAN HASIL INVESTASI DARI KETIMUN

MA Rahaman 1), MDH PRODHAN2)

1)Technical Officer (Pertanian), Kemitraan dalam Penelitian dan Penyuluhan Pertanian (PARE) Program, Mennonite Central Committee (PKS), Bangladesh, Jublee Bagan Lane, Sirajgonj-6700, 2) Scientific Officer, Entomologi Divisi, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh
Diterima untuk publikasi: 14July, 2007

ABSTRAK

Rahman, MA dan Prodhan, MDH 2007. Effects of Net Barrier dan sintetik Pestisida pada kumbang jipang merah dan Yield dari Ketimun. Int. J. Mempertahankan. Tanaman Prod. 2 (3): 30-34
Efek penghalang bersih dan beberapa pestisida sintetis kumbang jipang merah dan hasil mentimun diteliti menggunakan ladang petani di satu lokasi, Madhupur, Tangail selama tahun 2005-2006. Itu perlakuan kontrol, kelambu penghalang, carbofuran (tanah pencampuran pestisida) dan penyemprotan foliar Diazinon-60EC. Ada perbedaan dalam hal kinerja keseluruhan perawatan dan dalam beberapa kasus itu kurang lebih sama. Namun, dalam kendali tertinggi ada kutu daun dan buah-buahan oleh merah labu kumbang tapi hasil sangat dekat hasil kinerja tertinggi karena bersih tanaman penghalang
bebas dari dihinggapi tetapi sebulan setelah dihapus dari tanaman penghalang bersih menunjukkan lebih banyak kerentanan terhadap kumbang jipang merah dan serangga lain juga. The carbofuran kinerja yang baik dibandingkan dengan perawatan lainnya.

Keywords: Synthetic pestisida, bersih penghalang, hasil

PENDAHULUAN

Bangladesh adalah sebuah negara defisit sayuran. Sayuran tidak diproduksi secara merata sepanjang tahun ini negara. Kurang dari seperempat dari sayuran yang dihasilkan selama musim kharif dan lebih dari tiga - keempat diproduksi di musim Rabi (Anonymous, 1993a). Dengan demikian, jumlah yang lebih kecil sayuran yang ditanam di yang kharif (Musim Panas & hujan bulan) musim. Sayuran utama tumbuh di musim panas adalah cucurbits. Mentimun adalah populer dan sayuran cucurbitaceous dibudidayakan secara luas di Bangladesh. Orang-orang seperti itu dimasak dan mentah. Sebagian besar orang ingin memiliki sebagai salad. Di sisi lain keuntungan ekonomi yang baik akan datang melalui budidaya. Namun produksi ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa serangga hama. Di antara hama serangga ini, kumbang jipang merah
Kumbang (RPB) dan lalat buah yang paling merusak dan hama utama (Alam, 1969; Butani dan Jotwani, 1984). The RPB, Aulacophora foveicollis (Lucas), telah dilaporkan oleh Azim (1966) sebagaihama serangga yang paling merusak dari cucurbitaceous sayuran, khususnya mentimun dan melon, di Bangladesh. Hama serangga ini secara luas didistribusikan di seluruh Asia Tenggara serta kawasan Laut Tengah ke arah barat dan Australia di timur (Butani dan Jotwani, 1984).
Kumbang dewasa berwarna merah, lonjong dan panjang sekitar 6-8 mm dan bertelur di dasar timun batang. Satu betina dapat meletakkan telur 150-300 (Srivastava dan Butani, 1998). Kumbang yang dewasa makan lahap pada lamina daun membuat lubang-lubang tidak teratur dan juga menyerang cotyledons dan bunga (Butani dan Jotwani, 1984). Mereka makan bibit, muda dan lembut daun dan bunga. Mereka biasanya terjadi dalam jumlah besar. The belatung adalah putih kekuningan dan ketika di dalam tanah menyebabkan cedera pada akar (Maniruzzaman, 1981).
Saat ini petani benar-benar tergantung pada penggunaan insektisida untuk mengendalikan hama ini. Kontrol RPB oleh menerapkan insektisida telah dilaporkan oleh beberapa pekerja di rumah (Alam, 1969; Karim, 1992; Anonymous, 1992, 1993b, 1994) dan di luar negeri (Pawlacos, 1945; Butani dan Jotwani, 1984; Nair, 1986; Chattopadhyay, 1992 dan Saha, 1992). Tapi sembarangan penggunaan pestisida tidak hanya rumit manajemen, tetapi juga menciptakan beberapa efek samping seperti resistensi hama, wabah hama sekunder (Hagen dan Franz, 1973), bahaya kesehatan (Bhaduri et al., 1989) dan pencemaran lingkungan (Kavadia et al., 1984; Desmarchelier, 1985; Devi et al., 1986; Fishwick, 1988). Jadi selalu kita mencari alternatif dan ramah lingkungan metode pengendalian hama. Penggunaan jaring penghalang ditemukan untuk memberikan perlindungan yang memadai dari serangan RPB. Fisik penghalang mencegah orang dewasa dari memberi makan pada daun dan batang mencapai bertelur adalah metode kontrol potensial dan sejak kelambu tersedia secara luas di Bangladesh, ini dapat dengan mudah diperoleh oleh para petani untuk tujuan tersebut. Lebih baik untuk mengikuti kebutuhan aplikasi berbasis pestisida pada tindakan ambang batas dan ekonomi.
Ada tujuan di balik persidangan ini, yang adalah sebagai berikut: Untuk melihat efektivitas jaring penghalang untuk mengontrol kumbang jipang merah pada tahap semai dan akhirnya pada tahap produksi, untuk menemukan yang ramah lingkungan teknologi yang kurang berbahaya bagi lingkungan dan ramah terhadap serangga bermanfaat, dan untuk melihat efek pestisida sintetis yang berbeda pada hasil panen ketimun.

BAHAN DAN METODE

Studi ini dilakukan di bidang petani Jalchatra, Madhupur, Tangail di bawah yurisdiksi pasangan organisasi, Jalchatra Misi dari Mei hingga Agustus 2005. Perawatan diletakkan di desain RCB dengan 5 ulangan. Perawatan adalah sebagai berikut --
T1 = Kontrol
T2 = Kelambu penghalang
T3 = Penggunaan Carbofuran (tanah pencampuran pestisida) dan
T4 = Foliar penyemprotan Diazinon 60-EC.
Tanah disiapkan oleh empat membajak dan diratakan dengan benar. Direkomendasikan dosis kompos, 40kg/decimal dan pupuk kimia seperti urea: 460g, TSP: 460g dan MP: 230g per desimal yang dicampur tanah selama akhir persiapan diikuti oleh tanaman PKS kalender (2003). Luas area unit plot 2mX 8m = 16m 2 , Di mana total tanah 64M 2 ukuran. Plot utama dibagi menjadi 20 subplot. Tiga benih ditabur di setiap bukit dan bukit-bukit diatur dalam baris, di mana 1,5 m jarak antar tanaman disimpan untuk menanam dan baris ke baris. Sebuah kanal drainase
dari 25cm antara dua baris itu disimpan.
Kelambu pembatas itu ditetapkan setelah menabur benih dan saluran seperti itu untuk melihat. Pada 30 hari setelah penaburan (DAS) penghalang bersih telah dihapus. Dalam setiap bukit akhirnya satu tanaman itu disimpan dan mencabut dua lainnya dan kali ini panjang tunas dan akar data yang tercatat. Dalam pengobatan Carbofuran (sebagai bahan kimia pencampur tanah) - yang pestisida dicampur dengan tanah bukit sebelum menabur benih. Pada 30 hari, penipisan tanaman dilakukan dan menjaga satu per bukit dan pada waktu itu root dan menembak tercatat data panjang. Dalam perawatan menggunakan Diazinon 60EC sebagai folier semprot, itu disemprotkan ke lapangan dan itu mulai dari minggu pertama setelah munculnya dan itu terus sekali per minggu sampai panen.
Diperlukan antar operasi dilakukan dengan benar. Petani ini terkait dengan segala macam kegiatan persidangan. Mereka tidak begitu tertarik untuk melakukan hal itu dan itulah sebabnya asisten penelitian kami harus menghabiskan banyak waktu untuk tujuan ini. 50cm tinggi tongkat bambu yang diposting di sekitar bukit dan pestisida disemprot ke lapangan di setiap 8, 15 dan 21 hari. Data yang tercatat pada tahapan yang berbeda selama periode tanam. Pada setiap panen, jumlah dan berat baik penuh dan buah-buahan sehat direkam dan adanya kutu buah dihitung. Itu plot kumulatif hasil yang sehat dan penuh buah-buahan itu dikonversi ke hasil per hektar. Buah kutu itu dihitung dengan menggunakan rumus berikut:
Jumlah penuh buah-buahan
Buah kutu menurut jumlah (%) = ------------------------------------------ - x 100
Jumlah total buah-buahan
Semua data yang mengalami ANOVA dan perawatan sarana dipisahkan dengan menggunakan SPSS (versi 10.0).

HASIL DAN DISKUSI

Efek pengobatan yang berbeda pada daun mentimun
Jumlah daun pada 27 DAS dalam tiga perawatan (T 1,T 2 dan T 4 ) Lebih atau kurang sama dan secara statistik ada ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara mereka. Jumlah tertinggi adalah 15,60 ± 10,06 dalam T 3 (Carbofuran). Sebuah ditemukan perbedaan yang signifikan pada tingkat 5%, bila dibandingkan dengan Carbofuran tiga perawatan lainnya. Di 37 DAS jumlah tertinggi daun sedang 23,00 ± 11,68 di Carbofuran. Tiga lainnya perawatan menunjukkan hasil yang kurang lebih sama dan tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara perlakuan (Tabel 1).

Efek pengobatan yang berbeda pada ketinggian tanaman ketimun
Tinggi tanaman tertinggi menunjukkan oleh penghalang bersih Carbofuran sementara statistik kinerja yang sama (Table1). A perbedaan yang signifikan dalam ketinggian pabrik perawatan ini dan perawatan lainnya memang ada. Tanaman terendah ketinggian dilakukan oleh DNS dan Diazinon dan kedua perawatan tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan di antara mereka

Efek pengobatan yang berbeda pada panjang akar ketimun
Panjang akar tertinggi dilakukan oleh Carbofuran daripada penghalang bersih dan terendah kinerja dengan kontrol dan Diazinon. Secara statistik tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara mereka (Tabel 1).

Tabel 1: Efek penghalang bersih dan beberapa sintetis pestisida pada karakteristik agronomi yang berbeda ketimun (plot data bijaksana)


Perawatan Jumlah daun pada 27 DAS / plot ± SD Jumlah daun pada 37DAS ± SD Plant height (cm) pada 27 DAS ± SD Panjang akar (cm) ± SD Total no. dari dipanen buah-buahan ± SD
Kontrol 6.00 ± 2.12 b 13.80 ± 5.89 7.00 ± 2.92 b 5.35 ± 1.58 7.20 ± 4.02
Net penghalang 6.20 ± 3.35 b 12.20 ± 7.85 22.20 ± 20.73 ab 17.544± 16.66 4.20 ± 2.39
Carbofuran 15.60 ± 10.06 a 23.00 ± 11.68 38.60 ± 28.79 a 19.80 ± 11.52 9.60 ± 5.18
Diazinon 6.20 ± 0.84 b 13.40 ± 4.22 7.70 ± 1.72 b 6.50 ± 2.78 4.80 ± 2.05
F – nilai 3.71 2.82 3.62 2.51 2.67
P – nilai P< 0.05 NS P< 0.05 NS NS

Efek hambatan bersih dan beberapa sintetis pestisida pada hama mentimun status
Data dikumpulkan dari daun kumbang penuh pada 27 dan 37 DAS. Di mana, pada 27 DAS kontrol menunjukkan jumlah tertinggi kutu daun dan kutu nol diamati dalam jaring penghalang. Pada 37 DAS, pengendalian juga menunjukkan kutu tertinggi dan terendah oleh Carbofuran dan itu signifikan pada tingkat 5% (Tabel 2).
Ada perbedaan yang bermakna antara perawatan kutu membungkus buah. Kutu buah tertinggi ini terjadi oleh T 1. Kutu terendah terjadi oleh T 2 sementara Diazinon diperlakukan Carbofuran dan tanaman statistik memberikan hasil yang sama. (Tabel 2).
Tabel 2: Efek penghalang bersih dan beberapa sintetis pestisida pada hama mentimun status

Perawatan Jumlah daun kumbang penuh pada 27DAS ± SD Jumlah daun kumbang penuh di 37DAS ± SD Jumlah penuh buah-buahan ± SD
Kontrol 3.00 ± 1.22 a 3.80 ± 1.30 a 2.20 ± 1.30 a
Net penghalang 0.00 ± 0.00 b 2.40 ± 1.34 ab 0.60 ± 0.89 b
Carbofuran 0.20 ± 0.45 b 0.80 ± 0.84 b 2.00 ± 0.71 ab
Diazinon 0.60 ± 0.89 b 1.40 ± 2.61 b 1.00 ± 1.41 ab
F – nilai 11.82 3.79 3.47
P – nilai P< 0.01 P< 0.05 P = 0.05

Yield catatan: Untuk mengamati kinerja hasil data dikumpulkan dari kedua penuh dan non dipenuhi buah-buahan. Selama periode panen semua buah dipanen adalah ukuran dipasarkan. Pengumpulan data plot bijaksana (64M 2 ) Di kilogram dan diubah menjadi ton / hektar. Para Carbofuran memberikan hasil tertinggi (1.24 t / ha) dan kedua tertinggi dilakukan oleh kontrol (1,23 t / ha), di mana penghalang Diazinon dan bersih menghasilkan 0,55 t / ha dan 0,41 t / ha, masing-masing (Gambar 1).
Meskipun ada pertumbuhan dramatis itu terjadi dalam perawatan penghalang bersih tetapi pada tahap akhir adalah hasil tidak pada tingkat memuaskan. Jelas benar bahwa tanaman tetap bebas dari kutu saat dalam jaring penghalang, tetapi sebulan setelah dihapus dari penghalang bersih, tanaman menunjukkan lebih banyak kerentanan terhadap kumbang labu merah dan lain-lain serangga juga. Mungkin karena kondisi terbuka tanaman perawatan lain membangun sebuah perlawanan terhadap berbagai ancaman alam dan akhirnya mereka memberikan hasil yang dapat diterima, tetapi pertumbuhan dan hasil itu secara drastis dikurangi dalam net perawatan penghalang. Setelah menghilangkan penghalang bersih bahan-bahan yang ramah lingkungan seperti beberapa tumbuhan harus digunakan untuk menyimpan tanaman

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