Jumat, 01 Januari 2010

PESTISIDA SINTESIS

Nama                          :Anwar Gozali

NIM                            : 0810442057

Kelas                           :D

Judul Asli                   : Effects Of Net Barrier and Synthetic Pesticides On Red                                                Pumpkin Beetle and Yield of Cucumber

Judul Terjemah         : Akibat Dari Halangan Jaring dan Pestisida Sintetik pada                                 Kumbang Jipang Merah dan Hasil Investasi dari Ketimun

Dosen                          : dr. Ir. Anton Muhibbuddin

 

 

EFFECTS OF NET BARRIER AND SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES ON

RED PUMPKIN BEETLE AND YIELD OF CUCUMBER

 

M. A. RAHAMAN1), M. D. H. PRODHAN2)

 

1)Technical Officer (Agriculture), Partnership in Agricultural Research and Extension (PARE) Program, Mennonite Central Committee (MCC), Bangladesh, Jublee Bagan Lane, Sirajgonj - 6700, 2)Scientific Officer, Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh

Accepted for publication: 14July, 2007

 

ABSTRACT

 

Rahman, M.A. and Prodhan, M.D.H. 2007. Effects of Net Barrier and Synthetic Pesticides on Red Pumpkin Beetle and Yield of Cucumber. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 2(3): 30-34

The effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on red pumpkin beetle and on yield of cucumber was investigated using farmer’s field at one location, Madhupur, Tangail during the year 2005-2006. The treatments were control, mosquito net barrier, carbofuran (soil mixing pesticide) and foliar spraying of Diazinon-60EC. There were differences in case of overall performance of the treatments and in some cases it was more or less similar. However, in control there was a highest leaf and fruit infestation by the red pumpkin beetle but yield was very near to the highest yield performance because in net barrier plants were free from infestation but a month after removed of net barrier plants showed more susceptibility to the red pumpkin beetle and other insects also. The carbofuran performed well compared to other treatments.

Keywords: Synthetic pesticides, net barrier, yield

 

INTRODUCTION

Bangladesh is a vegetable deficit country. The vegetables are not produced evenly throughout the year in this country. Less than one-fourth of the vegetables are produced during the kharif season and more than threefourth are produced in the rabi season (Anonymous, 1993a).Thus, smaller quantities of vegetables are grown in the kharif (Summer & rainy months) season. The major vegetables grown in the summer are the cucurbits. Cucumber is a popular and extensively cultivated cucurbitaceous vegetable in Bangladesh. People like it cooked and raw. Most people like to have it as a salad. On the other hand a good economic profit may come through its cultivation. But its production is severely affected by a number of insect pests. Among these insect pests, the red pumpkin.

Beetle (RPB) and fruit flies are the most damaging and major pests (Alam, 1969; Butani and Jotwani, 1984). The RPB, Aulacophora foveicollis (Lucas), has been reported by Azim (1966) as the most destructive insect pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables, specially cucumber and melons, in Bangladesh. This insect pest is widely distributed all over the South-East Asia as well as the Mediterranean region towards the west and Australia in the east (Butani and Jotwani, 1984). The adult beetle is red, oblong and approximately 6-8 mm long and lays its eggs at the base of the cucumber stem. A single female can lay 150 to 300 eggs (Srivastava and Butani, 1998).

The adult beetles feed voraciously on the leaf lamina making irregular holes and also attack cotyledons and flowers (Butani and Jotwani, 1984). They eat seedlings, young and tender leaves and flowers. They normally occur in large numbers. The grubs are yello wish white and when in the soil cause injury to the roots (Maniruzzaman, 1981). Presently the farmers are totally depended on the use of insecticides to control this pest. Control of RPB by applying insecticides has been reported by several workers in home (Alam, 1969; Karim,1992 ; Anonymous, 1992, 1993b, 1994) and abroad (Pawlacos, 1945 ; Butani and Jotwani , 1984; Nair, 1986; Chattopadhyay, 1992 and Saha, 1992).But indiscriminate use of pesticides has not only complicated the management, but has also created several adverse effects such as pest resistance, outbreak of secondary pests (Hagen and Franz, 1973), health hazards (Bhaduri et al., 1989) and environmental pollution (Kavadia et al., 1984; Desmarchelier, 1985; Devi et al., 1986; Fishwick, 1988). So always we are looking alternative and environment- friendly methods of pest control. The use of net barrier was found to provide adequate protection from RPB attack. A physical barrier preventing the adults from feeding on the leaves and from reaching the stem to lay their eggs is a potential control method and since mosquito netting is widely available in Bangladesh, it could be easily procured by farmers for such purpose. It is better to follow the need based applications of pesticides at action threshold and economic threshold.

There are objectives behind this trial, which are as follows: To see the effectiveness of net barrier to control the red pumpkin beetles at its seedling stage and finally at the production stage; to find an environment-friendly technology which is less hazardous to the environment and friendly to the beneficial insects; and to see the effect of different synthetic pesticides on the yield of cucumber.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was conducted at farmer’s field of Jalchatra, Madhupur, Tangail under the jurisdiction of a partner organization, Jalchatra Mission from May to August, 2005. The treatments were laid out in RCB design with 5 replications. Treatments were as follows

T1 = Control

T2 = Mosquito net barrier

T3 = Use of Carbofuran (soil mixing pesticide) and

T4 = Foliar spraying of Diazinon 60-EC.

Land was prepared by four ploughing and was leveled properly. Recommended doses of compost, 40kg/decimal and chemical fertilizers like urea: 460g, TSP: 460g and MP: 230g per decimal were mixed during final land preparation followed by MCC crop calendar (2003).The area of unit plot was 2mX 8m = 16m2, where the total land was 64m2 in size. The main plot was divided into 20 subplots. Three seeds were sown in each hill and hills were arranged in rows, where 1.5 m distance was kept between plant to plant and row to row. A drainage canal of 25cm between two rows was kept.

The mosquito net barrier was set just after seed sowing and it was funnel like to look at. At 30 days after sowing (DAS) the net barrier was removed. In each hill finally one plant was kept and uprooting the other two and at this time shoots and root length data were recorded. In the treatment Carbofuran (as a soil mixing chemical) – the pesticide was mixed with hill soil just before seed sowing. At 30 days, thinning of plants was done and keeping one per hill and at that time root and shoot length data were recorded. In the treatment using Diazinon 60EC as a folier spray, it was sprayed to the field and it was starting from the first week after emergence and it was continued once per week till harvest.

Necessary intercultural operations were done properly. Farmer was related with all kinds of trial activities. They were not so interested to do that and that is why our research assistant had to spend a lot time for this purpose. 50cm high bamboo sticks were posted around the hill and pesticides were sprayed to the field in every 8, 15 and 21 days.

Data was recorded at different stages during the cropping period. At each harvest, the number and weight of both infested and healthy fruits were recorded and the presence of fruit infestation was calculated. The cumulative plot yield of healthy and infested fruits was converted to yield per hectare. Fruit infestation was calculated using the following formula:

Number of infested fruits

Fruit infestation by number (%) = ------------------------------------------- X 100

Number of total fruits

All data were subjected to ANOVA and the treatment means were separated by applying SPSS (version 10.0).

 

Results and Discussion

Effect of different treatments on leaves of cucumber

Numbers of leaves at 27 DAS in three treatments (T1, T2 and T4) were more or less same and statistically there were no significant differences among them. The highest number was 15.60 ± 10.06 in the T3 (Carbofuran). A significant difference was found at 5% level, when the Carbofuran was compared with other three treatments. At 37 DAS the highest number of leaves were being 23.00 ± 11.68 in the Carbofuran. Other three treatments showed approximately same results and there were no significant differences among the treatments (Table 1).

 

Effect of different treatments on plant height of cucumber

Highest plant height showed by the Carbofuran while net barrier performance was statistically same (Table1).A significant difference in the plant height of these treatments and the other treatment did exist. The lowest plant height was performed by the control and Diazinon and these two treatments showed no significant differences between them.

 

Effect of different treatments on root length of cucumber

Highest root length was performed by the Carbofuran than the net barrier and lowest performance by the control and Diazinon. Statistically there were no significant differences among them (Table 1).

 

Table 1: Effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on different agronomic characteristics of cucumber (plot wise data)

Treatments

No. of leaves at 27 DAS/plot ± SD

No. of leaves at 37DAS ± SD

Plant height (cm) at 27 DAS ± SD

Root length (cm) ± SD

Total no. of harvested fruits ± SD

Control

6.00 ± 2.12 b

13.80 ± 5.89

7.00 ± 2.92 b

5.35 ± 1.58

7.20 ± 4.02

Net barrier

6.20 ± 3.35 b

12.20 ± 7.85

22.20 ± 20.73 ab

17.544± 16.66

4.20 ± 2.39

Carbofuran

15.60 ± 10.06 a

23.00 ± 11.68

38.60 ± 28.79 a

19.80 ± 11.52

9.60 ± 5.18

Diazinon

6.20 ± 0.84 b

13.40 ± 4.22

7.70 ± 1.72 b

6.50 ± 2.78

4.80 ± 2.05

F – value

3.71

2.82

3.62

2.51

2.67

P – value

P<>

NS

P<>

NS

NS

 


Effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on cucumber pest status

Data was collected from beetle infested leaves at 27 and 37 DAS. Where, at 27 DAS the control showed a highest number of leaf infestation and zero infestation was observed in the net barrier. At 37 DAS, the control also showed the highest infestation and lowest by the Carbofuran and it was significant at 5% level (Table 2).

There were significant differences among the treatments incase of fruit infestation. The highest fruit infestation was occurred by the T1. Lowest infestation occurred by T2 while the Carbofuran and Diazinon treated plants gave statistically the same results. (Table 2).

Table 2: Effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on cucumber pest status

Treatments

No. of beetle infested leaves at 27DAS ± SD

No. of beetle infested leaves at 37DAS ± SD

No. of infested fruits ± SD

Control

3.00 ± 1.22 a

3.80 ± 1.30 a

2.20 ± 1.30 a

Net barrier

0.00 ± 0.00 b

2.40 ± 1.34 ab

0.60 ± 0.89 b

Carbofuran

0.20 ± 0.45 b

0.80 ± 0.84 b

2.00 ± 0.71 ab

Diazinon

0.60 ± 0.89 b

1.40 ± 2.61 b

1.00 ± 1.41 ab

F – value

11.82

3.79

3.47

P – value

P<>

P<>

P = 0.05

 

Yield records :

To observe the yield performance data were collected from both infested and non infested fruits. During the harvesting period all harvested fruits were marketable size. Data was collected plot wise (64m2) in kilogram and was converted to ton/hectare. The Carbofuran gave the highest yield (1.24 t/ha) and second highest was performed by the control (1.23 t/ha), where the Diazinon and net barrier yielded 0.55 t/ha and 0.41 t/ha, respectively (Fig.1).

Though there is a dramatic growth rate was occurred in the treatment net barrier but at the final stage yield was not at satisfactory level. Obviously it is true that plants remain free of infestation when it is in the net barrier, but a month after removed of net barrier, the plants showed more susceptibility to the red pumpkin beetle and other insects also. It may be that due to open condition plants of other treatments built a resistance against different natural threats and finally they gave an acceptable yield, but growth and yield was drastically reduced in the treatment net barrier. After removing the net barrier environment friendly materials like some botanicals had to be used to save the plants.

 

 Yield records :

To observe the yield performance data were collected from both infested and non infested fruits. During the harvesting period all harvested fruits were marketable size. Data was collected plot wise (64m2) in kilogram and was converted to ton/hectare. The Carbofuran gave the highest yield (1.24 t/ha) and second highest was performed by the control (1.23 t/ha), where the Diazinon and net barrier yielded 0.55 t/ha and 0.41 t/ha, respectively (Fig.1).

Though there is a dramatic growth rate was occurred in the treatment net barrier but at the final stage yield was not at satisfactory level. Obviously it is true that plants remain free of infestation when it is in the net barrier, but a month after removed of net barrier, the plants showed more susceptibility to the red pumpkin beetle and other insects also. It may be that due to open condition plants of other treatments built a resistance against different natural threats and finally they gave an acceptable yield, but growth and yield was drastically reduced in the treatment net barrier. After removing the net barrier environment friendly materials like some botanicals had to be used to save the plants.

 

REFERENCES

Alam, M. Z. 1969. Pest of cucurbit vegetables. In: Insect-Pests of vegetables and Their Control in East Pakistan. Agricultural Information Service, Department of Agriculture, Dacca, pp. 89-110.

 

Anonymous. 1992. Annual Research Report (1991-92), Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur. 137p.

 

Anonymous. 1993a. Research and development of vegetable crops. Paper presented in the workshop on March 9-10, 1993 at IPSA, Gazipur. pp. 1-7.

 

Anonymous. 1993b. Annual Research Report (1992-93), Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur. 112p.

 

Anonymous. 1994. Annual Research Report (1993-94), Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur. 132p.

 

Azim, M. I. I. 1966. Studies on the biology of red pumpkin beetle, Aulacophora foveicollis (Lucas) (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) in East Pakistan. M. Sc. Thesis. Department of Entomology. Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. pp. 1-95.

 

Bhaduri, M., Gupta, D.P. and Ram, S. 1989. Effect of vegetable oils on the ovipositional behaviour of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). Proc. 2nd Intl. Symp. On Brouchids and Legumes (ISLB-2) held at Okyayamace (Japan), Sept. 6-9, 1989. pp. 81-84.

 

Butani, D. K. and M. G. Jotwani. 1984. Insects in vegetables. Periodical Expert Book Agency. Vivek-Vihar, Delhi (India). pp. 69-79.

 

Chattopadhyay, P. 1992. Keetatatta, keetadaman O Shasya Sanrakshan. West Bengal State Book Board, Arjo Mansion (9th floor), 6A, Raja Subodh Mollick Square, Calcutta-700013, India. 2nd Edition. 375p. (in Bangla).

Desmarchelier, Y.M. 1985. Bolivian of pesticide residues on stored grain, Aciar Prof. Series, Australian Centre Int. Agril. Res. 14: 19-29.

 

Devi, D.A., Mohandas, N. and Vistakshy, A. 1986. Residues of Fenthion, Quinphos and Malathion in paddy grains following surface treatment of gunny bags. Agril. Res. J.Kerala. 24(2): 222-224.

 

Fishwick, R.B. 1988. Pesticide residues in grain arising from post harvest treatments. Aspects Appl. Biol. 17(2): 37-46.

 

Hagen, K.S. and Franz, J.M. 1973. A history of biological control. pp. 433-467. In: Smith, R.F., Mittler, T.E. and Smith, C.N. (eds.). History of Entomology. Annual Rev. Inc., Palocetto, California. 872 p.

 

Karim, M. A. 1992. Insect pests of vegetable crops and their management. In: Vegetable production and Marketing. Lopez, K. and E. Libas (eds.). Proc. National Review and Workshop held at BARI, Gazipur, Bangladesh on January 26-29. 1992. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Shanhua, Tainan,

Taiwan. Publication No. 92-379. pp. 110-112.

 

Kavadia, V.S., Pareek, B.L. and Sharma, K.P. 1984. Residues of malathion and carbaryl in stored sorghum.

Bull. Grain Tech. 22(3): 247-250.

 

Maniruzzaman, F.M. 1981. Plant protection in Bangladesh, National book center: Bangladesh, Purana Paltan,

Dhaka: pp.249-251.

 

MCC Bangladesh Research Result, 2003. The effects of a net barrier and thiamethoxam seed treatment on cucumber growth in the first four weeks after emergence at Mannan Nagar, 29: 35-38.

Nair, M. R. G. K. 1986. Insects and Mites of Crops in India. Publication and Information Division, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. New Delhi. pp. 162-169.

 

Pawlacos, J. G. 1945. The biology and control of Aulacophora foveicollis (Lucas) in Greece. Rev. Appl. Ent. Ser. A. 33: 16-17.

 

Saha, L. R. 1992. Handbook of plant protection. Kalyani publishers, 1/1, Rajinder Nagar, Ludhiana-141008, India. First Edition, Reprinted. 928p.

 

Srivastava, K.P. and Butani, D.K. 1998. Pest Management in Vegetables Part –I, Research Periodicals and Book Publishing House Houston, Texas.

 

TERJEMAH

 

AKIBAT DARI HALANGAN JARING DAN PESTISIDA SINTETIK PADA KUMBANG JIPANG MERAH DAN HASIL INVESTASI DARI KETIMUN

 

MA RAHAMAN MA Rahaman 1),  MDH PRODHAN2)

 

1, MDH PRODHAN2

1Technical Officer (Agriculture), Partnership in Agricultural Research and Extension (PARE) Program, Mennonite Central Committee 1)Technical Officer (Pertanian), Kemitraan dalam Penelitian dan Penyuluhan Pertanian (PARE) Program, Mennonite Central Committee (MCC), Bangladesh, Jublee Bagan Lane, Sirajgonj- 6700,(PKS), Bangladesh, Jublee Bagan Lane, Sirajgonj-6700, 22)Scientific Officer, Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Scientific Officer, Entomologi Divisi, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur-1701, BangladeshInstitute, Joydebpur, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh

Accepted for publication: 14July, 2007 Diterima untuk publikasi: 14July, 2007

 

ABSTRACT ABSTRAK

Rahman, MA and Prodhan, MDH 2007 . Effects of Net Barrier and Synthetic Pesticides on Red Pumpkin Beetle and Yield of Rahman, MA dan Prodhan, MDH 2007. Effects of Net Barrier dan sintetik Pestisida pada kumbang jipang merah dan Yield dari Cucumber. Int. Ketimun. Int. J. Sustain. J. Mempertahankan. Crop Prod. Tanaman Prod. 2(3): 30-34 2 (3): 30-34

The effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on red pumpkin beetle and on yield of cucumber Efek penghalang bersih dan beberapa pestisida sintetis kumbang jipang merah dan hasil mentimun was investigated using farmer's field at one location, Madhupur, Tangail during the year 2005-2006. diteliti menggunakan ladang petani di satu lokasi, Madhupur, Tangail selama tahun 2005-2006. The Itu  treatments were control, mosquito net barrier, carbofuran (soil mixing pesticide) and foliar spraying ofperlakuan kontrol, kelambu penghalang, carbofuran (tanah pencampuran pestisida) dan penyemprotan foliar Diazinon-60EC.Diazinon-60EC. There were differences in case of overall performance of the treatments and in some cases Ada perbedaan dalam hal kinerja keseluruhan perawatan dan dalam beberapa kasusit was more or less similar. itu kurang lebih sama.However, in control there was a highest leaf and fruit infestation by the red Namun, dalam kendali tertinggi ada kutu daun dan buah-buahan oleh merah pumpkin beetle but yield was very near to the highest yield performance because in net barrier plants werelabu kumbang tapi hasil sangat dekat hasil kinerja tertinggi karena bersih tanaman penghalang

free from infestation but a month after removed of net barrier plants showed more susceptibility to the red bebas dari dihinggapi tetapi sebulan setelah dihapus dari tanaman penghalang bersih menunjukkan lebih banyak kerentanan terhadap kumbang jipang merah dan serangga lain juga. The carbofuran performed well compared to other treatments. The carbofuran kinerja yang baik dibandingkan dengan perawatan lainnya.

 

Keywords : Synthetic pesticides, net barrier, yield Keywords: Synthetic pestisida, bersih penghalang, hasil

 

INTRODUCTION PENDAHULUAN

 

Bangladesh is a vegetable deficit country.            Bangladesh adalah sebuah negara defisit sayuran. The vegetables are not produced evenly throughout the year in this Sayuran tidak diproduksi secara merata sepanjang tahun inicountry. negara. Less than one-fourth of the vegetables are produced during the kharif season and more than three- Kurang dari seperempat dari sayuran yang dihasilkan selama musim kharif dan lebih dari tiga -fourth are produced in the rabi season (Anonymous, 1993a).Thus, smaller quantities of vegetables are grown in keempat diproduksi di musim Rabi (Anonymous, 1993a). Dengan demikian, jumlah yang lebih kecil sayuran yang ditanam dithe kharif (Summer & rainy months) season. yang kharif (Musim Panas & hujan bulan) musim. The major vegetables grown in the summer are the cucurbits. Sayuran utama tumbuh di musim panas adalah cucurbits.Cucumber is a popular and extensively cultivated cucurbitaceous vegetable in Bangladesh. Mentimun adalah populer dan sayuran cucurbitaceous dibudidayakan secara luas di Bangladesh. People like it cooked Orang-orang seperti itu dimasakand raw. dan mentah. Most people like to have it as a salad. Sebagian besar orang ingin memiliki sebagai salad. On the other hand a good economic profit may come through its Di sisi lain keuntungan ekonomi yang baik akan datang melaluicultivation. budidaya. But its production is severely affected by a number of insect pests. Namun produksi ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa serangga hama. Among these insect pests, the red Di antara hama serangga ini, kumbang jipang merah

Beetle (RPB) and fruit flies are the most damaging and major pests (Alam, 1969; Butani and Jotwani, 1984).            Kumbang (RPB) dan lalat buah yang paling merusak dan hama utama (Alam, 1969; Butani dan Jotwani, 1984). The RPB, Aulacophora foveicollis (Lucas), telah dilaporkan oleh Azim (1966) sebagai The RPB, Aulacophora foveicollis (Lucas), has been reported by Azim (1966) as the most destructive insect pesthama serangga yang paling merusak dari cucurbitaceous sayuran, khususnya mentimun dan melon, di Bangladesh. This insect pest is widely Hama of cucurbitaceous vegetables, specially cucumber and melons, in Bangladesh.serangga ini secara luas distributed all over the South-East Asia as well as the Mediterranean region towards the west and Australia indidistribusikan di seluruh Asia Tenggara serta kawasan Laut Tengah ke arah barat dan Australia di the east (Butani and Jotwani, 1984).timur (Butani dan Jotwani, 1984).

The adult beetle is red, oblong and approximately 6-8 mm long and lays its eggs at the base of the cucumber            Kumbang dewasa berwarna merah, lonjong dan panjang sekitar 6-8 mm dan bertelur di dasar timunstem. batang. A single female can lay 150 to 300 eggs (Srivastava and Butani, 1998). Satu betina dapat meletakkan telur 150-300 (Srivastava dan Butani, 1998). The adult beetles feed voraciously Kumbang yang dewasa makan lahapon the leaf lamina making irregular holes and also attack cotyledons and flowers (Butani and Jotwani, 1984). pada lamina daun membuat lubang-lubang tidak teratur dan juga menyerang cotyledons dan bunga (Butani dan Jotwani, 1984). They eat seedlings, young and tender leaves and flowers. Mereka makan bibit, muda dan lembut daun dan bunga. They normally occur in large numbers. Mereka biasanya terjadi dalam jumlah besar. The grubs are The belatung adalahyellowish white and when in the soil cause injury to the roots (Maniruzzaman, 1981). putih kekuningan dan ketika di dalam tanah menyebabkan cedera pada akar (Maniruzzaman, 1981).

Presently the farmers are totally depended on the use of insecticides to control this pest.            Saat ini petani benar-benar tergantung pada penggunaan insektisida untuk mengendalikan hama ini. Control of RPB by Kontrol RPB olehapplying insecticides has been reported by several workers in home (Alam, 1969; Karim,1992 ; Anonymous, menerapkan insektisida telah dilaporkan oleh beberapa pekerja di rumah (Alam, 1969; Karim, 1992; Anonymous,1992, 1993b, 1994) and abroad (Pawlacos, 1945 ; Butani and Jotwani , 1984; Nair, 1986; Chattopadhyay, 1992 1992, 1993b, 1994) dan di luar negeri (Pawlacos, 1945; Butani dan Jotwani, 1984; Nair, 1986; Chattopadhyay, 1992and Saha, 1992).But indiscriminate use of pesticides has not only complicated the management, but has also dan Saha, 1992). Tapi sembarangan penggunaan pestisida tidak hanya rumit manajemen, tetapi jugacreated several adverse effects such as pest resistance, outbreak of secondary pests (Hagen and Franz, 1973), menciptakan beberapa efek samping seperti resistensi hama, wabah hama sekunder (Hagen dan Franz, 1973),health hazards (Bhaduri et al., 1989) and environmental pollution (Kavadia et al., 1984; Desmarchelier, 1985; bahaya kesehatan (Bhaduri et al., 1989) dan pencemaran lingkungan (Kavadia et al., 1984; Desmarchelier, 1985;Devi et al., 1986; Fishwick, 1988). Devi et al., 1986; Fishwick, 1988). So always we are looking alternative and environment- friendly methods of Jadi selalu kita mencari alternatif dan ramah lingkungan metodepest control. pengendalian hama. The use of net barrier was found to provide adequate protection from RPB attack. Penggunaan jaring penghalang ditemukan untuk memberikan perlindungan yang memadai dari serangan RPB. A physical Fisikbarrier preventing the adults from feeding on the leaves and from reaching the stem to lay their eggs is a penghalang mencegah orang dewasa dari memberi makan pada daun dan batang mencapai bertelur adalahpotential control method and since mosquito netting is widely available in Bangladesh, it could be easily metode kontrol potensial dan sejak kelambu tersedia secara luas di Bangladesh, ini dapat dengan mudahprocured by farmers for such purpose. diperoleh oleh para petani untuk tujuan tersebut. It is better to follow the need based applications of pesticides at action Lebih baik untuk mengikuti kebutuhan aplikasi berbasis pestisida pada tindakan threshold and economic threshold. ambang batas dan ekonomi.

There are objectives behind this trial, which are as follows: To see the effectiveness of net barrier to control the            Ada tujuan di balik persidangan ini, yang adalah sebagai berikut: Untuk melihat efektivitas jaring penghalang untuk mengontrolred pumpkin beetles at its seedling stage and finally at the production stage; to find an environment-friendly kumbang jipang merah pada tahap semai dan akhirnya pada tahap produksi, untuk menemukan yang ramah lingkungan teknologi yang kurang berbahaya bagi lingkungan dan ramah terhadap serangga bermanfaat, dan untuk melihateffect of different synthetic pesticides on the yield of cucumber. efek pestisida sintetis yang berbeda pada hasil panen ketimun.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS BAHAN DAN METODE

 

The study was conducted at farmer's field of Jalchatra, Madhupur, Tangail under the jurisdiction of a partner            Studi ini dilakukan di bidang petani Jalchatra, Madhupur, Tangail di bawah yurisdiksi pasanganorganization, Jalchatra Mission from May to August, 2005. organisasi, Jalchatra Misi dari Mei hingga Agustus 2005. The treatments were laid out in RCB design with 5 Perawatan diletakkan di desain RCB dengan 5replications. ulangan. Treatments were as follows – Perawatan adalah sebagai berikut --

T1= Control T1 = Kontrol

T2= Mosquito net barrier T2 = Kelambu penghalang

T3= Use of Carbofuran (soil mixing pesticide) and T3 = Penggunaan Carbofuran (tanah pencampuran pestisida) dan

T4= Foliar spraying of Diazinon 60-EC. T4 = Foliar penyemprotan Diazinon 60-EC.

Land was prepared by four ploughing and was leveled properly.Tanah disiapkan oleh empat membajak dan diratakan dengan benar. Recommended doses of compost, 40kg/decimal Direkomendasikan dosis kompos, 40kg/decimaland chemical fertilizers like urea: 460g, TSP: 460g and MP: 230g per decimal were mixed during final land dan pupuk kimia seperti urea: 460g, TSP: 460g dan MP: 230g per desimal yang dicampur tanah selama akhirpreparation followed by MCC crop calendar (2003).The area of unit plot was 2mX 8m = 16m persiapan diikuti oleh tanaman PKS kalender (2003). Luas area unit plot 2mX 8m = 16m2 2, where the total , Di mana totalland was 64m tanah 64M 2 2in size. ukuran. The main plot was divided into 20 subplots. Plot utama dibagi menjadi 20 subplot. Three seeds were sown in each hill and hills Tiga benih ditabur di setiap bukit dan bukit-bukitwere arranged in rows, where 1.5 m distance was kept between plant to plant and row to row. diatur dalam baris, di mana 1,5 m jarak antar tanaman disimpan untuk menanam dan baris ke baris. A drainage canal Sebuah kanal drainase

of 25cm between two rows was kept. dari 25cm antara dua baris itu disimpan.

The mosquito net barrier was set just after seed sowing and it was funnel like to look at.            Kelambu pembatas itu ditetapkan setelah menabur benih dan saluran seperti itu untuk melihat. At 30 days after sowing Pada 30 hari setelah penaburan(DAS) the net barrier was removed. (DAS) penghalang bersih telah dihapus. In each hill finally one plant was kept and uprooting the other two and at Dalam setiap bukit akhirnya satu tanaman itu disimpan dan mencabut dua lainnya dan this time shoots and root length data were recorded. kali ini panjang tunas dan akar data yang tercatat. In the treatment Carbofuran (as a soil mixing chemical)- the Dalam pengobatan Carbofuran (sebagai bahan kimia pencampur tanah) - yangpesticide was mixed with hill soil just before seed sowing. pestisida dicampur dengan tanah bukit sebelum menabur benih. At 30 days, thinning of plants was done and keeping Pada 30 hari, penipisan tanaman dilakukan dan menjagaone per hill and at that time root and shoot length data were recorded. satu per bukit dan pada waktu itu root dan menembak tercatat data panjang. In the treatment using Diazinon 60EC as a Dalam perawatan menggunakan Diazinon 60EC sebagaifolier spray, it was sprayed to the field and it was starting from the first week after emergence and it was folier semprot, itu disemprotkan ke lapangan dan itu mulai dari minggu pertama setelah munculnya dan itucontinued once per week till harvest. terus sekali per minggu sampai panen.

Necessary intercultural operations were done properly.            Diperlukan antar operasi dilakukan dengan benar. Farmer was related with all kinds of trial activities. Petani ini terkait dengan segala macam kegiatan persidangan. They Merekawere not so interested to do that and that is why our research assistant had to spend a lot time for this purpose. tidak begitu tertarik untuk melakukan hal itu dan itulah sebabnya asisten penelitian kami harus menghabiskan banyak waktu untuk tujuan ini.50cm high bamboo sticks were posted around the hill and pesticides were sprayed to the field in every 8, 15 and 50cm tinggi tongkat bambu yang diposting di sekitar bukit dan pestisida disemprot ke lapangan di setiap 8, 15 dan21 days. 21 hari. Data was recorded at different stages during the cropping period.

Data yang tercatat pada tahapan yang berbeda selama periode tanam. At each harvest, the number and weight of Pada setiap panen, jumlah dan beratboth infested and healthy fruits were recorded and the presence of fruit infestation was calculated. baik penuh dan buah-buahan sehat direkam dan adanya kutu buah dihitung. The Itucumulative plot yield of healthy and infested fruits was converted to yield per hectare. plot kumulatif hasil yang sehat dan penuh buah-buahan itu dikonversi ke hasil per hektar. Fruit infestation was Buah kutu itucalculated using the following formula: dihitung dengan menggunakan rumus berikut:

Number of infested fruits                                                            Jumlah penuh buah-buahan

Fruit infestation by number (%) = ------------------------------------------- X 100 Buah kutu menurut jumlah (%) = ------------------------------------------ - x 100

Number of total fruits                                                            Jumlah total buah-buahan

All data were subjected to ANOVA and the treatment means were separated by applying SPSS (version 10.0). Semua data yang mengalami ANOVA dan perawatan sarana dipisahkan dengan menggunakan SPSS (versi 10.0).

 

Results and Discussion Hasil dan Pembahasan

Effect of different treatments on leaves of cucumber Efek pengobatan yang berbeda pada daun mentimun

Numbers of leaves at 27 DAS in three treatments (T            Jumlah daun pada 27 DAS dalam tiga perawatan (T 11,, TT 22and T dan T 44) were more or less same and statistically there ) Lebih atau kurang sama dan secara statistik adawere no significant differences among them. ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara mereka. The highest number was 15.60 ± 10.06 in the T Jumlah tertinggi adalah 15,60 ± 10,06 dalam T3 3(Carbofuran). (Carbofuran). A Sebuahsignificant difference was found at 5% level, when the Carbofuran was compared with other three treatments. ditemukan perbedaan yang signifikan pada tingkat 5%, bila dibandingkan dengan Carbofuran tiga perawatan lainnya. AtDi37 DAS the highest number of leaves were being 23.00 ± 11.68 in the Carbofuran. 37 DAS jumlah tertinggi daun sedang 23,00 ± 11,68 di Carbofuran. Other three treatments Tiga lainnya perawatanshowed approximately same results and there were no significant differences among the treatments (Table 1). menunjukkan hasil yang kurang lebih sama dan tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara perlakuan (Tabel 1).

 [Effect of different treatments on plant height of cucumberEfek pengobatan yang berbeda pada ketinggian tanaman ketimun

Highest plant height showed by the Carbofuran while net barrier performance was statistically same (Table1).ATinggi tanaman tertinggi menunjukkan oleh penghalang bersih Carbofuran sementara statistik kinerja yang sama (Table1). Asignificant difference in the plant height of these treatments and the other treatment did exist. perbedaan yang signifikan dalam ketinggian pabrik perawatan ini dan perawatan lainnya memang ada. The lowest plant Tanaman terendahheight was performed by the control and Diazinon and these two treatments showed no significant differences ketinggian dilakukan oleh DNS dan Diazinon dan kedua perawatan tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikanbetween them. di antara mereka

Efek pengobatan yang berbeda pada panjang akar ketimun

Highest root length was performed by the Carbofuran than the net barrier and lowest performance by the controlPanjang akar tertinggi dilakukan oleh Carbofuran daripada penghalang bersih dan terendah kinerja dengan kontroland Diazinon. dan Diazinon. Statistically there were no significant differences among them (Table 1). Secara statistik tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara mereka (Tabel 1).

Table 1: Effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on different agronomic characteristics of cucumberTabel 1: Efek penghalang bersih dan beberapa sintetis pestisida pada karakteristik agronomi yang berbeda ketimun(plot wise data) (plot data bijaksana)

Perawatan

Jumlah daun pada 27 DAS / plot ± SD

Jumlah daun pada 37DAS ± SD

Plant height (cm) pada 27 DAS ± SD

Panjang akar (cm) ± SD

Total no. dari  dipanen buah-buahan  ± SD

Kontrol

6.00 ± 2.12 b

13.80 ± 5.89

7.00 ± 2.92 b

5.35 ± 1.58

7.20 ± 4.02

Net penghalang

6.20 ± 3.35 b

12.20 ± 7.85

22.20 ± 20.73 ab

17.544± 16.66

4.20 ± 2.39

Carbofuran

15.60 ± 10.06 a

23.00 ± 11.68

38.60 ± 28.79 a

19.80 ± 11.52

9.60 ± 5.18

Diazinon

6.20 ± 0.84 b

13.40 ± 4.22

7.70 ± 1.72 b

6.50 ± 2.78

4.80 ± 2.05

F – nilai

3.71

2.82

3.62

2.51

2.67

P – nilai

P<>

NS

P<>

NS

NS

 

Effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on cucumber pest status Efek hambatan bersih dan beberapa sintetis pestisida pada hama mentimun status

Data was collected from beetle infested leaves at 27 and 37 DAS.Data dikumpulkan dari daun kumbang penuh pada 27 dan 37 DAS. Where, at 27 DAS the control showed a Di mana, pada 27 DAS kontrol menunjukkanhighest number of leaf infestation and zero infestation was observed in the net barrier. jumlah tertinggi kutu daun dan kutu nol diamati dalam jaring penghalang. At 37 DAS, the control Pada 37 DAS, pengendalianalso showed the highest infestation and lowest by the Carbofuran and it was significant at 5% level (Table 2). juga menunjukkan kutu tertinggi dan terendah oleh Carbofuran dan itu signifikan pada tingkat 5% (Tabel 2).

There were significant differences among the treatments incase of fruit infestation. Ada perbedaan yang bermakna antara perawatan kutu membungkus buah. The highest fruit infestation Kutu buah tertinggiwas occurred by the T ini terjadi oleh T . 1. Lowest infestation occurred by TKutu terendah terjadi oleh T2 2while the Carbofuran and Diazinon treated plants sementara Diazinon diperlakukan Carbofuran dan tanamangave statistically the same results. statistik memberikan hasil yang sama. (Table 2). (Tabel 2).

[

Table 2: Effect of net barrier and some synthetic pesticides on cucumber pest statusTabel 2: Efek penghalang bersih dan beberapa sintetis pestisida pada hama mentimun status

Perawatan

Jumlah daun kumbang penuh pada 27DAS ± SD

Jumlah daun kumbang penuh di 37DAS ± SD

Jumlah penuh buah-buahan  ± SD

Kontrol

3.00 ± 1.22 a

3.80 ± 1.30 a

2.20 ± 1.30 a

Net penghalang

0.00 ± 0.00 b

2.40 ± 1.34 ab

0.60 ± 0.89 b

Carbofuran

0.20 ± 0.45 b

0.80 ± 0.84 b

2.00 ± 0.71 ab

Diazinon

0.60 ± 0.89 b

1.40 ± 2.61 b

1.00 ± 1.41 ab

F – nilai

11.82

3.79

3.47

P – nilai

P<>

P<>

P = 0.05

Yield records: To observe the yield performance data were collected from both infested and non infested fruits.



Yield catatan: Untuk mengamati kinerja hasil data dikumpulkan dari kedua penuh dan non dipenuhi buah-buahan.During the harvesting period all harvested fruits were marketable size. Selama periode panen semua buah dipanen adalah ukuran dipasarkan. Data was collected plot wise (64m Pengumpulan data plot bijaksana (64M 22) in ) Dikilogram and was converted to ton/hectare. kilogram dan diubah menjadi ton / hektar. The Carbofuran gave the highest yield (1.24 t/ha) and second Para Carbofuran memberikan hasil tertinggi (1.24 t / ha) dan keduahighest was performed by the control (1.23 t/ha), where the Diazinon and net barrier yielded 0.55 t/ha and 0.41 tertinggi dilakukan oleh kontrol (1,23 t / ha), di mana penghalang Diazinon dan bersih  menghasilkan 0,55 t / ha dan 0,41t/ha, respectively (Fig.1). t / ha, masing-masing (Gambar 1).

Though there is a dramatic growth rate was occurred in the treatment net barrier but at the final stage yield was            Meskipun ada pertumbuhan dramatis itu terjadi dalam perawatan penghalang bersih tetapi pada tahap akhir adalah hasilnot at satisfactory level. tidak pada tingkat memuaskan. Obviously it is true that plants remain free of infestation when it is in the net barrier, but Jelas benar bahwa tanaman tetap bebas dari kutu saat dalam jaring penghalang, tetapia month after removed of net barrier, the plants showed more susceptibility to the red pumpkin beetle and other sebulan setelah dihapus dari penghalang bersih, tanaman menunjukkan lebih banyak kerentanan terhadap kumbang labu merah dan lain-laininsects also. serangga juga. It may be that due to open condition plants of other treatments built a resistance against different Mungkin karena kondisi terbuka tanaman perawatan lain membangun sebuah perlawanan terhadap berbagainatural threats and finally they gave an acceptable yield, but growth and yield was drastically reduced in the ancaman alam dan akhirnya mereka memberikan hasil yang dapat diterima, tetapi pertumbuhan dan hasil itu secara drastis dikurangi dalamtreatment net barrier. net perawatan penghalang. After removing the net barrier environment friendly materials like some botanicals had toSetelah menghilangkan penghalang bersih bahan-bahan yang ramah lingkungan seperti beberapa tumbuhan harusbe used to save the plants. digunakan untuk menyimpan tanaman



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